Multiscale Modeling Of Pedestrian Dynamics

Author: Emiliano Cristiani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331906620X
File Size: 74,49 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book presents mathematical models and numerical simulations of crowd dynamics. The core topic is the development of a new multiscale paradigm, which bridges the microscopic and macroscopic scales taking the most from each of them for capturing the relevant clues of complexity of crowds. The background idea is indeed that most of the complex trends exhibited by crowds are due to an intrinsic interplay between individual and collective behaviors. The modeling approach promoted in this book pursues actively this intuition and profits from it for designing general mathematical structures susceptible of application also in fields different from the inspiring original one. The book considers also the two most traditional points of view: the microscopic one, in which pedestrians are tracked individually and the macroscopic one, in which pedestrians are assimilated to a continuum. Selected existing models are critically analyzed. The work is addressed to researchers and graduate students.

Ecohealth Research In Practice

Author: Dominique F. Charron
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461405177
File Size: 29,58 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is about doing innovative research to achieve sustainable and equitable change in people’s health and well-being through improved interactions with the environment. It presents experiences from the field of ecosystem approaches to health (or ecohealth research) and some insights and lessons learned. It builds on previous literature, notably Forget (1997), Forget and Lebel (2001), Lebel (2003), and Waltner-Toews et al. (2008). Through case-studies and other contributions by researchers supported by Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the book presents evidence of real changes in conditions of people, their health, and the ecosystems that support them. These changes were derived from applications of an ecosystem approach to health in developing regions of the world. The book also illustrates the resulting body of applied, participatory, and action research that improved health and environmental management in developing countries and, in many cases, influenced policies and practices.

Analytical Travel Forecasting Approaches For Project Level Planning And Design

Author: C. D. M. Smith
ISBN: 9780309284042
File Size: 67,76 MB
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"TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 765: Analytical Travel Forecasting Approaches for Project-Level Planning and Design describes methods, data sources, and procedures for producing travel forecasts for highway project-level analyses. This report provides an update to NCHRP Report 255: Highway Traffic Data for Urbanized Area Project Planning and Design. In addition to the report, Appendices A through I from the contractor's final report are available on CRP-CD-143. These appendices supplement this report by providing a substantial amount of companion data and information. The appendices also include the extended literature review, the detailed NCHRP Report 255 review, supplementary tables, a list of defined acronyms, and a glossary. Also included on CRP-CD-143 are spreadsheet demonstrations, and, for reference purposes, a tool developed by the North Carolina Department of Transportation to assess annual average daily traffic."--Publisher's description.

Spectral Methods For Uncertainty Quantification

Author: Olivier Le Maitre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048135202
File Size: 17,47 MB
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This book deals with the application of spectral methods to problems of uncertainty propagation and quanti?cation in model-based computations. It speci?cally focuses on computational and algorithmic features of these methods which are most useful in dealing with models based on partial differential equations, with special att- tion to models arising in simulations of ?uid ?ows. Implementations are illustrated through applications to elementary problems, as well as more elaborate examples selected from the authors’ interests in incompressible vortex-dominated ?ows and compressible ?ows at low Mach numbers. Spectral stochastic methods are probabilistic in nature, and are consequently rooted in the rich mathematical foundation associated with probability and measure spaces. Despite the authors’ fascination with this foundation, the discussion only - ludes to those theoretical aspects needed to set the stage for subsequent applications. The book is authored by practitioners, and is primarily intended for researchers or graduate students in computational mathematics, physics, or ?uid dynamics. The book assumes familiarity with elementary methods for the numerical solution of time-dependent, partial differential equations; prior experience with spectral me- ods is naturally helpful though not essential. Full appreciation of elaborate examples in computational ?uid dynamics (CFD) would require familiarity with key, and in some cases delicate, features of the associated numerical methods. Besides these shortcomings, our aim is to treat algorithmic and computational aspects of spectral stochastic methods with details suf?cient to address and reconstruct all but those highly elaborate examples.

Multiscale Modelling And Simulation

Author: Sabine Attinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642187560
File Size: 45,56 MB
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Stochastic Processes And Applications

Author: Grigorios A. Pavliotis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493913239
File Size: 57,14 MB
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This book presents various results and techniques from the theory of stochastic processes that are useful in the study of stochastic problems in the natural sciences. The main focus is analytical methods, although numerical methods and statistical inference methodologies for studying diffusion processes are also presented. The goal is the development of techniques that are applicable to a wide variety of stochastic models that appear in physics, chemistry and other natural sciences. Applications such as stochastic resonance, Brownian motion in periodic potentials and Brownian motors are studied and the connection between diffusion processes and time-dependent statistical mechanics is elucidated. The book contains a large number of illustrations, examples, and exercises. It will be useful for graduate-level courses on stochastic processes for students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering. Many of the topics covered in this book (reversible diffusions, convergence to equilibrium for diffusion processes, inference methods for stochastic differential equations, derivation of the generalized Langevin equation, exit time problems) cannot be easily found in textbook form and will be useful to both researchers and students interested in the applications of stochastic processes.

Domain Decomposition Methods For The Numerical Solution Of Partial Differential Equations

Author: Tarek Mathew
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354077209X
File Size: 69,59 MB
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Domain decomposition methods are divide and conquer computational methods for the parallel solution of partial differential equations of elliptic or parabolic type. The methodology includes iterative algorithms, and techniques for non-matching grid discretizations and heterogeneous approximations. This book serves as a matrix oriented introduction to domain decomposition methodology. A wide range of topics are discussed include hybrid formulations, Schwarz, and many more.

Visualizing Density

Author: Julie Campoli
Publisher: Lincoln Inst of Land Policy
ISBN: 9781558441712
File Size: 32,12 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The American Dream of a single-family home on its own expanse of yard still captures the imagination. But with a growing population --100 million more people expected in the United States by 2050--rising energy and transportation costs, disappearing farmland and open space, and the clear need for greater energy efficiency and a reduction in global warming emissions, the future built environment must include more density. Landscape architect and land planner Julie Campoli and aerial photographer Alex S. MacLean have joined forces to create a full-color, richly illustrated book to help planners, designers, public officials, and citizens better understand, and better communicate to others, the concept of density as it applies to the residential environment. Also included is a CD-Rom of the Density Catalog section, including more than 1000 aerial photographs of 250 locations that illustrate a vast range of densities.